Home Civil Law How Oil Price Collapse Caused Recession in Nigeria by Suzanne Driscoll

How Oil Price Collapse Caused Recession in Nigeria by Suzanne Driscoll


It is the second recession in Nigeria inside 5 years and opinions are nonetheless divided about its trigger. As the coronavirus pandemic rages on, thousands and thousands of shoppers world wide are appreciating decrease costs on the fuel pump. However, for a lot of nations comparable to Nigeria that drastically depend on income from the manufacturing and sale of oil, the outcomes are devastating to their financial system.

Nigeria formally went into recession in October 2020, making it the second recession in 5 years. Oil manufacturing is considerably managed by authorities and earnings from exports comprise 70 percent of all authorities income. Sales are denominated in U.S money and account for greater than 90 percent of the nation’s overseas alternate.

In December 2019, oil offered for $60 per barrel, however a yr later it offered for less than $48 per barrel. In April 2020 the value had plunged to $18 per barrel, and for a time it was truly offered at a loss because of an absence of storage capability. While Nigeria’s every day manufacturing output is normally at 2 million barrels per day, it has now been lower to 1.4 million barrels per day.

This is going on proper when the Nigerian authorities is confronted with the prices of responding to the coronavirus and stimulating the financial system, requiring each income and overseas alternate.

Why Has the Price of Oil Decreased so Rapidly?

The primary purpose for the value decline for oil is the sharp lower in demand as a result of worldwide coronavirus pandemic. With many companies shut down, tourism is virtually nonexistent, and with many individuals working from house, the necessity for oil in transportation worldwide has considerably declined.

Additionally, a commerce battle between Saudi Arabia and Russia erupted over oil manufacturing ranges simply as the consequences of the pandemic began to take maintain. This destabilized your complete market and affected the world worth of oil. Growth for the oil sector in Nigeria was –13.89 percent in Q3 2020 in comparison with Q3 within the earlier yr.

Other Causes of the Recession in Nigeria

A recession is mostly outlined as two consecutive quarters of detrimental progress. In addition to the lack of oil income, lockdowns as a result of coronavirus have been imposed within the main cities of Lagos and the capital Abuja from late March 2020 to early May, as well as in different areas. A ban was additionally positioned on interstate journey that drastically affected the native economies. Tax income for the federal government in Q3 declined by –15.29 percent from the earlier quarter.   

Another reason for the recession in Nigeria was the disruption of fuel provide to neighboring nations because of an explosion in a serious pipeline. This occurred 4 days after the resumption of fuel provide to Ghana and Togo upon the completion of fix work after a fireplace in November 2020. Compared to Q3 in 2019, the expansion charge for the Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply sector was –13.77 percent.  

Long Term Solutions

“Besides immediate efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19 and stimulate the economy, it will be even more urgent to address bottlenecks that hinder the productivity of the economy and job creation,” mentioned Shubham Chaudhuri, World Bank Country Director for Nigeria.

When the vast majority of authorities income is obtained from just one supply, there are certain to be recessions as a result of fixed modifications in provide and demand for oil with ensuing worth fluctuations. Clearly, financial diversification is essential for the long run monetary well being of Nigeria. Nigeria urgently wants to advertise free enterprise initiatives by offering possibilities for folks to accumulate the talents and funding to start out their very own companies, which might end in became greater income for the federal government. It would additionally assist to extend the variety of jobs, as the present unemployment charge hit 33.5 percent in 2020.

Importantly, Nigeria must put money into its formal training system. Currently, Nigeria has the best variety of youngsters out of college on the planet. According to the BBC, there are at the least 10.5 million youngsters not being educated because of cultural components, nomadic communities and the Boko Haram insurgency. However, out of an grownup number living of over 9 million, schools produce about 600,000 graduates every year. Many graduates are thought-about underemployed as a result of lack of white collar jobs.  

Initiatives to diversify the economy and cut back unemployment also needs to incorporate plans to:

  • End authorities corruption that cripples financial improvement;
  • Match school and coaching college curriculum to the wants of employers;
  • Improve roads, vitality provides and entry to scrub water.
  • Reduce number living progress;
  • Strengthen entrepreneurship packages such because the Youth Employment and Social Support Operation (YESSO);
  • Improve formal training in expertise;
  • Reduce the retirement age for each authorities and non-government staff; and
  • Increase loans and grants for agricultural and different entrepreneurs.

The challenges in Nigeria are many. But with continued help from the global group and the foreseeable finish to the coronavirus pandemic, the financial state of affairs ought to slowly enhance.

Suzanne Driscoll is a author for Sharemoney from St. Petersburg, Florida. She has written for nationwide publications on points involving enterprise, healthcare, formal training and immigration.


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