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If You Want an Enforceable Online Contract, You Better Keep a Good Chain of Evidence-Snow v. Eventbrite – Technology & Marketing Law Blog


Eventbrite needed to ship a lawsuit to arbitration, so it invoked the arbitration clause in its TOS. But did the plaintiffs assent to Eventbrite’s TOS? The court docket says no. What went improper?

Eventbrite has three on-line venues: its desktop web site, a separate cell web site, and its cell app. Each venue has two pertinent pages, the signup page and the acquisition page. This means Eventbrite wants to put the evidentiary basis for six totally different TOS formation processes. Because every of the 6 screens are totally different, the court docket says it could’t categorically bless or reject the TOS’s formation.

The court docket needed a clean chain of proof exhibiting the precise person interface and TOS phrases for every of the 6 screens since January 2018 (the earliest {that a} plaintiff signed up). Eventbrite didn’t ship that proof.

Eventbrite introduced examples of how the screens appeared in 2016 (left) and the way they give the impression of being now (proper), resembling:

Note that within the right-hand screenshot, the call-to-action doesn’t talk about what occurs if a person “continues with Apple.” An own-goal. (In my Internet Law class, I call this a “leak” in what ought to be a compulsory course of).

Otherwise, the court docket has shown that these is perhaps profitable contract formation processes: “the sign-in wrap agreement is adjacent to the buttons that signal acceptance, is in a font that contrasts with the background, and displays the phrase ‘terms of service’ in hyperlink blue (and sometimes underlined as well).”

Still, the court docket doesn’t know what to do with this proof as a result of the relationship (from 2016) doesn’t match the time durations when the plaintiffs signed up. To masks this, Eventbrite says that the screens appeared about the identical all through the pertinent time durations. This doesn’t impress the choose as a result of “cases have sometimes turned on seemingly small differences in design that courts have held did or did not place a reasonably prudent user on notice.”

The choose additionally isn’t impressed with Eventbrite’s cautious cropping. Eventbrite tried to promote these screenshots of its call-to-action placement:

With extra context, the call-to-action appears much less outstanding:

The plaintiffs additionally argued that the “place order” button “floated” on the display, in order that it was all the time visible because the person visiting scrolled up and down the page. If so, a person visiting might need been in a position to fill out the shape and click on on the place order button with out ever seeing the call-to-action. Ugh.

The court docket then evaluations some particular TOS formation interfaces. One person allegedly signed up with this cell net interface:

[the righthand box is a magnification of the bottom of the left box]

The court docket says this interface may kind the TOS:

If this sign-in wrap agreement is what Snow really noticed, it’s enough to place her on discover. The message that states “I accept the terms of service” is immediately above that Pay Now button, which means that Snow needed to scroll previous it to press the button. It was additionally positioned near the button. The phrases “terms of service” seem as a hyperlink to the TOS itself. That hyperlink is blue, whereas the textual content round it’s grey. There is nothing concerning the textual content that will make it inconspicuous or non-obvious. As courts have held with respect to related messages, a fairly prudent person can be positioned on inquiry discover by this specific sign-in wrap agreement.

However, Eventbrite’s declaration says solely that this interface utilized in 2016, not when the person signed up.

Another person signed up by way of this cell app interface:

The court docket rejects formation on this display:

The background of the page is black (or very darkish grey) whereas the textual content “By continuing, I accept the Eventbrite terms of service” is—aside from the phrase “terms of service” itself—darkish grey. The operative message that clicking the button “accept[s]” the TOS is definitely missed due to the shortage of distinction between it and the background. The buttons instantly above the textual content are both brightly coloured and distinction starkly with the black background (as is the case for the Apple and Facebook buttons) or use massive, white textual content in opposition to the black (as is the case for the e-mail handle button). All of these buttons additionally use massive, clear fonts; the textual content of the disclaimer, in distinction, is small. The total impression, consequently, would lead many shoppers to click on one of many vibrant buttons whereas by no means figuring out—and fairly so—that the low-contrast disclaimer topics them to the TOS.

Another own-goal.

In the top, between the own-goals and the confusion over screenshot relationship, Eventbrite didn’t carry its burden to point out contract formation. Motion to compel arbitration denied. This must be a demanding end result for Eventbrite, as a result of it seemingly snatched defeat from the jaws of victory.

* * *

What ought to Eventbrite’s attorneys have executed in a different way? It’s fairly easy: attorneys want to consider modifications to contract formation pages–whether or not it’s the contract substance or the UI presentation–as a brand new entry in a changelog. Each variation–regardless of how minor–ought to be snapshotted and archived with relevant relationship in a reputable type of proof. If the page has any shifting elements, resembling a floating “place order” button or popups or animations, the legal professional also needs to document a video exhibiting the animation.

While this precept is straightforward to state, it’s laborious to implement. In Eventbrite’s case, the legal professional had 6 totally different screens to observe, and it’s doable/possible that the engineers may modify the UI or page performance with out approval from the legal professionals. (And if there are a number of TOSes that an legal professional is liable for, this workload grows quickly). The attorney-in-charge wants to coach these with modifying energy of the significance of protecting a legally rigorous changelog, in order that the legal professional can bless the modifications and, if they’re acceptable, take the snapshots of every change.

Even with a correct and authenticated changelog, Eventbrite made some own-goals. Eventbrite clearly knew methods to design formation processes correctly based mostly on its different screens, and so do you. I belief you’ll not make the identical mistake.

Case quotation: Snow v. Eventbrite, Inc., 2020 WL 6135990 (N.D. Cal. Oct. 19, 2020)


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